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联合国《禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公约》(1988)

 

United Nations Convention[1]Against Illicit[2]

Traffic[3] in Narcotic Drugs[4]and Psychotropic

Substances[5] (1988)

 

    背景:本公约于19881219日在奥地利维也纳联合国通过禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公约会议的第六次全会上通过,1990111日生效,也称《维也纳公约》。中国于19881220日签署。中国全国人大常委会于198994日批准了该公约。该公约不仅是国际社会也是联合国制定的第一个惩治跨国洗钱犯罪的国际性法律规范文件,其主要内容有:明确规定毒品洗钱犯罪的概念;明确规定了打击毒品洗钱犯罪的刑法手段和缔约国承担的强制性义务;初步规范了侦查、识别毒品洗钱犯罪案件的国际合作机制等。本公约共三十四条,其中第三条(1)款(b)项对毒品洗钱犯罪性质及其犯罪行为的规范,具有重要的立法创新意义。现节选第三条《犯罪和制裁》的(1)款(a)和(b)项。

 

Article 3

 

OFFENCES[6] AND SANCTIONS[7]

 

1. Each Party shall adopt such measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences under its domestic law, when committed intentionally[8]:

 

     a)  i) The production, manufacture, extraction; preparation, offering, offering for sale, distribution, sale, delivery on any terms whatsoever, brokerage, dispatch, dispatch in transit, transport, importation or exportation of any narcotic drug or any psychotropic substance contrary to the provisions of the 1961 Convention, the 1961 Convention as amended or the 1971 Convention[9];

        ii) The cultivation of opium poppy[10], coca[11] bush or cannabis[12] plant for the purpose of the production of narcotic drugs contrary to the provisions of the 1961 Convention and the 1961 Convention as amended[13];

        iii) The possession or purchase of any narcotic drug or psychotropic substance for the purpose of any of the activities enumerated[14] in i) above;

        iv) The manufacture, transport or distribution of equipment, materials or of substances listed in Table I and Table II, knowing that they are to be used in or for the illicit cultivation, production or manufacture of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances;

        v) The organization, management or financing of any of the offences enumerated in i), ii), iii) or iv) above;

 

    b)  i) The conversion or transfer[15] of property, knowing that such property is derived from any offence or offences established in accordance with subparagraph a) of this paragraph, or from an act of participation in such offence or offences, for the purpose of concealing[16] or disguising[17] the illicit origin of the property or of assisting any person who is involved in the commission of such an offence or offences to evade[18] the legal consequences of his actions;

        ii) The concealment or disguise of the true nature, source, location, disposition, movement, rights with respect to, or ownership of property, knowing that such property is derived from an offence or offences established in accordance with subparagraph a) of this paragraph or from an act of participation in such an offence or offences.


 



[1] Convention [kEn5venFEn] 公约

[2] illicit  [i5lisit] 非法的

[3] traffic  [5trAfik] 交易

[4] narcotic drug: 麻醉药品。这里的麻醉药品系指《1961年麻醉品单一公约》及经《修正1961年麻醉品单一公约的1972年议定书》修正的该公约附表一或附表二所列的任何天然或合成物质。

[5] psychotropic substances:精神药物。 这里的精神药物系指《1971年精神药物公约》附表一、二、三或四所列的任何天然或合成物资或任何天然材料。

[6] Offence [E5fens] 犯罪

[7] sanction [5sANkFEn ] 惩处

8 Each Party shall adopt …… when committed intentionally. 各缔约国应采取可能必要的措施将下列故意行为确定为其国内法中的刑事犯罪

9 The production, manufacture ……or the 1971 Convention: 违反《1961年公约》、经修正的《1961年公约》或《1971年公约》各项规定,生产、制造、提炼、配制、提供、兜售、分销、出售、以任何条件交付、代理、发送、发送途中、运输、进口或出口任何麻醉药品或精神药物。

[10] poppy  [5pCpi] 罂粟

[11] coca  [5kEukE] 古柯

[12] cannabis  [5kAnEbis] 大麻

[13] amend  [E5mend] 修正

[14] enumerate  [i5nju:mEreit] 列举

[15] conversion or transfer of property: 转换或转移财产。洗钱过程中,转换或转移非法财产手段有多种,如通过现金走私、将大额现金分散存入银行、向现金流量高的行业(如娱乐场所、餐饮业、小型超市等)投资、购置流动性较强的古玩、贵金属等商品、注册空壳公司、利用“地下钱庄”和民间借贷等,以达到隐匿或掩饰非法所得的目的。

[16] conceal  [kEn5si:l] 隐瞒

[17] disguise  [dis5^aiz] 伪装, 掩饰

[18] evade  [i5veid] 避免




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